Basic Solar Cell Information and Graphs

Sunlight contains many colors of light which are received as wavelengths. Color and relative power in each color of light is determined by the measure of these wavelengths. Figure 1 below plots this relationship between wavelengths and color among the spectral distribution of ordinary light.

solar spectrum1

Figure 1: Wavelength to Power Graph

*Picture provided by 



The relative response of a typical silicon solar cell across the light spectrum is represented in Figure 2. As we can see from the chart, silicon solar cells have a high response over a broad range of wavelengths.


Figure 2: Wavelength to Solar Cell Response Graph

*Picture provided by



In most circumstances, solar cells are not exposed to maximum levels of sunlight. Figure 3 shows the resulting output of a solar cell when exposed to different levels of sunlight intensity. Notice that the terminal voltage is not significantly effected by the sunlight intensity.

 solarcell i v curve

Figure 3: Wavelength to Solar Cell Response Graph

*Picture provided by 



The average number of peak sun hours per day varies from one area of the country to another. Figure 4 shows the yearly average peak sun hours and in turn the potential for solar energy applications for different parts of the country.

 insolation map

Figure 4: Average Peak Sun Hours/Day

*Picture provided by 



 Series and Parallel Connections


In order to transmit the electricity of the sunlight activated "N-P" junction of the solar cell, simply attach a conductor (copper wire) to each side of the solar cell. The resulting electrical current is determined by the surface area of the cell, with each cell producing one-half volt. In order to vary the amount of current of voltage produced, solar cells can be connected in series and/or parallel. 


Solar cells connected in series (- to + to - to +...) will increase the voltage output while the current remains the same.


*Picture provided by



Solar cells connected in parallel (- to - and + to +) will increase the current output while the voltage remains the same.


*Picture provided by



By combining these two prinicples one can increase both the current and voltage output of a solar cell system.

 Series Parallel Connecting Solar Panels

*Picture provided by


*For complete information regarding Solar please reference the website.